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The genus Oligopogon Loew, 1847 (Diptera: Asilidae) in the Palaearctic Region, including the description of new species and comments on the placement of this genus

[Die Gattung Oligopogon Loew, 1847 (Diptera: Asilidae) in der Paläarktis, nebst der Beschreibung neuer Arten und einem Kommentar zur systematischen Stellung der Gattung]

by
Fritz GELLER-GRIMM and Milan HRADSKÝ
Frankfurt a. M. (Germany)     Zásmuky (Czech Republic)
(2003)

[published in: Studia Dipterologica 10(1) (2003): 165-179, Halle an der Saale]


Abstract: Eight palaearctic species of the genus Oligopogon Loew, 1847 are recognised, five of them being described as new: O. anatolicus spec. nov., O. creticus spec. nov., O. graecus spec. nov., O. londti spec. nov., and O. rufus spec. nov. A key for their identification and comments on their distribution are provided. The systematic position of the genus is briefly discussed. O. nitidus Efflatoun, 1937 is recorded from Syria for the first time.
Key words: Insecta, Diptera, Asilidae, Oligopogon, new records, new species, key, Palaearctic Region, Greece, Syria, Turkey

Zusammenfassung: Die paläarktischen Arten der Gattung Oligopogon Loew, 1847 werden untersucht. Acht Arten werden festgestellt, fünf davon neu beschrieben: O. anatolicus spec. nov., O. creticus spec. nov., O. graecus spec. nov., O. londti spec. nov. und O. rufus spec. nov. Ein Bestimmungsschlüssel und Kommentare zur Verbreitung der Arten werden vorgestellt. Die systematische Stellung der Gattung wird diskutiert. O. nitidus Efflatoun, 1937 wird erstmals aus Syrien beschrieben.
Stichwörter: Insecta, Diptera, Asilidae, Oligopogon, neue Nachweise, neue Arten, Bestimmungsschlüssel, Paläarktis, Griechenland, Syrien, Türkei

 

Introduction

The genus Oligopogon Loew, 1847 is confined to the Palaearctic and Afrotropical Regions, from which 11 species were known. An accumulation of unstudied palaearctic material prompted this study and increases the number of species to 16.

A brief history of systematic work on Oligopogon:

  • Loew (1847) - erected the genus with the description of the type species, O. hybotinus, from Rhodos (Greece).
  • Loew (1858) - described O. penicillatus from South Africa.
  • Bigot (1878) described O. atrum (ater) from South Africa.
  • Engel (1930) - diagnosed for the genus, placed it in the 'sub-group' Eremocneminae of the Dasypogoninae.
  • Engel & Cuthbertson (1937) - described O. nigripennis from Zimbabwe.
  • Engel & Cuthbertson (1939) - offered a key to the species of Zimbabwe.
  • Engel (1932) - described O. pollinosus from Zimbabwe.
  • Efflatoun (1937) - described O. nitidus from Egypt.
  • Hull (1962) - diagnosed the genus, placed it in the Stenopogonini of the Dasypogoninae.
  • Oldroyd (1959) - described Rhipidocephala hyalipennis from Madagascar (Oligopogon: Oldroyd, 1970).
  • Oldroyd (1970) - placed the genus in the Xenomyzini, produced a key to afrotropical species and descibed O. harlequini from Nigeria and O. superciliatus from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DCR). He also reported O. hybotinus from the DRC (a questionable action as it was based on a comparison with specimens from Turkey, where O. hybotinus has never been recorded).

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  • Oldroyd (1974) - produced a key to the South African species and descibed O. enigmatus from South Africa. He noted: "Oligopogon is placed here only [in the tribe Xenomyzini] because it is difficult to locate anywhere else."
  • Theodor (1980) - described O. palaestinensis from Israel, placed the genus in the tribe Damalini of the subfamily Dasypogoninae.
  • Oldroyd (1980) - catalogued the afrotropical species of Oligopogon and placed them in the tribe Xenomyzini of the subfamily Dasypogoninae.
  • Lehr (1988) - placed the genus in the subfamily Trigomiminae [= Trigonomiminae], listed the palaearctic species and added a record of O. hybotinus from the Transcaucasus Region.
  • Scarbrough & Marascia (1996) - noted that Emphysomera hyacinthina Bigot, 1876 is a synonym of O. penicillatus.

Redescription of Oligopogon Loew, 1847

Type species: Oligopogon hybotinus Loew, 1847.
Head twice as wide as high, eyes very large (goggle-eyed). Face at base of antenna about half as wide as one eye, with small tentorial pits. Frons slightly widening dorsally. Ocellar tubercle large. Face, frons and occiput tomentose, except ocellar tubercle and two atomentose spots lateral to the vertex. Face in lateral view slightly convex and slightly projecting ventrally. Mystax sparse, with thin bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex. Ocellar tubercle with short and long hairs. Postocular bristles (occipital bristles) thin, in one row. Lower occipital hairs (cheek hairs) present. Antenna composed of scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista. Arista two-segmented, with apical sensory element and second segment with long hairs. Average ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.5 to 5.0 to 3.0. Palps cylindrical, 2-segmented, with hairs. Proboscis short (length about equel to depth of head), cylindrical, straight.
Thorax: Ante- and postpronotum with hairs and tomentum. Scutum in lateral view symmentrically rounded (slightly humped), with with a few hairs, slightly punctate, with spots or stripes of tomentum. Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, other bristles undifferentiated. Pleurae with tomentum. Metepimeron with few hairs. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum with a few hairs, tomentose anteriorly. Prosternum not isolated from propleura by a membranous area. Postmetacoxal area membranous. Wings: Costa extends around wing margin, ending in a fusion of 1st branch of anal vein and 2nd anterior branch of cubitus, anal area and alula without or with a thin bordering vein. 1st radial cell open, fused with coxa. Open are: 2nd and 3rd radial cell, 4th radial cell, 5th radial cell, 1st medial cell, 2nd medial cell, 3rd medial cell, and anterior cubital cell. Posterior cubital cell closed and stalked. Alula reduced. Microtrichia absent, except on bording veins. Legs: Fore and mid legs of usual shape, apex of hind tibia thickened. Pulvilli and claws of usual shape.
Abdomen elongate-cylindrical, composed of 7 visible segments in males and 8 segments in females (of undissected specimens), punctate. Tergite 1 with thin, yellowish bristles. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites present on tergites 1-7 in males, usually lacking in females on tergites 3-7. Triangular stripes or spots of tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites. Sternites with tomentum and hairs.
Male terminalia: Hypopygium not rotated. Epandria divided into two lobes, which are triangular. Proctiger broad. Gonocoxtites larger than parts of epandrium, with ventral apical process and a large inner plate-shaped extension. Gonostylus short, narrowing apically. Aedeagus very short, with a large posterior bulge above the narrow apical part, extending nearly to its end. Hypandrium large, triangular, with bristles at the apex (Theodor, 1980). Remark: The


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examination of the male genitalia of the palaearctic species did not show any variation. All of them resembles the description and illustrations, given by Theodor, 1980 (Figs. 300-304, p. 169).
Female terminalia: Acanthophorites present. Sternite 8 prominent and with somewhat keel-shaped ventral lamellae (like the ovipositor in the genus Stichopogon Loew, 1847).
Body length: 5-9 mm.

Systematic position
According to the key to subfamilies of Artigas & Papavero (1988), Oligopogon must be placed in the Stichopogoninae, because of the presence of acanthophorites and the ventral keel on sternite 8 in females. But Oligopogon has hairs on the metepimeron, which are not be found in the Stichopogoninae sensu Artigas & Papavero (1988).
Hull (1962) placed Oligopogon in the Stenopogonini because females possess acanthophorites. Other authors do not accept this placement, because Oligopogon has a fused prosternum. Because of the lack of a conclusive concept for the classification of the higher taxa in the Asilidae, a placement of Oligopogon is not possible at the moment. Several characteristics of the genus resemble those of the Trigonomiminae, like the very large eyes with small tentorial pits, the frons, which are slightly widening dorsally, and the fused prosternum. Compared with some genera of the Stenopogoninae (like Oxynoton Janssens, 1951 and Afroholopogon Londt, 1994) several other characteristics point to a placement in this subfamily. The main objection being the fused prosternum. Most of the species of Oligopogon have a fused prosternum, which shows a small, but visible opening in front of the fore coxae. Perhaps this character state is a precurcor to an isolated prosternum. This feature is also known from afrotropical species of Oligopogon and Afroholopogon (Londt, pers. comm.). In summery, Oligopogon must be placed in Stenopogoninae.

Methods, material
Seventyeight specimens were available for study. The drawings and measurements given in this paper were made using an ocular micrometer, a digital camera system and various graphic software. Morphological terminology follows mainly that of McAlpine (1981) while antennal terminology follows Stuckenberg (1999). Different labels are seperated by a semicolon, additional notes are enclosed in square brackets.
Abbreviations:
   COGG = Coll. Fritz Geller-Grimm, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
   COMH = Coll. Milan Hradský, Zásmuky, Czech Republic
   ZMHB = Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt Universität, Berlin (Germany)
   ZSMC = Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany

Systematic part

Oligopogon anatolicus spec. nov.
(Figs 1, 9, 17, 25, 33)

Material examined: Holotype male: Turkey, Sobran, Porsuk Brj., 08. VII. 1993, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-079, Coll. COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection. Paratypes: [same data as holotype], No. OLI-077, OLI-078, 2 males, No. OLI-080 up to OLI-086, 7 females, Coll. COMH & COGG. Turkey, Porsuk Baraji, Sobran, 08. VII. 1993, leg. K. Denes, No. OLI-076, Coll. COMH, 1 male. Turkey, Balikesir [Canakkale], 70 km W Edremit, 3939'N 2624' E, 12. VII. 1987, leg. E. Hüttinger, No. 075, Coll. COMH, 1 male.
Geographic distribution: Turkey (Fig. 33).

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Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with greyish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, whitish bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with silvery tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex. Ocellar tubercle with short and long whitish hairs. Postocular bristles thin, whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head whitish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short black and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.4 to 4.5 to 3.2. Arista two-segmented, with whitish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and whitish hairs. Scutum black, with a few long and yellowish hairs, with two small spots of silvery tomentum laterally to the postpronotal lobes, hind corners of these spots are somewhat expaned; two silvery tomentose spots at sides of scutum and two small spots in front of the scutellum. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 1, 9). Bristles: 2 short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles yellowish. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with two narrow spots, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half. Wings clear. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex, with predominantly whitish hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae predominantly black, hind tibia more or less reddish-brown on dorsum, mid tibia reddish-brown at ist base, with predominantly whitish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, with predominantly short yellowish hairs which are longer at sides of tergites 1-2. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, whitish bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish. Triangular stripes of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 3-7 (Fig. 17). Sternites completely with whitish tomentum, only small stripes are atomentose laterally (Fig. 25). Male genitalia as for the genus.

Body length: 5 mm; length of wing: 3.5 mm.
Female: Like the male. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.
Paratypes: Body length: 5-6 mm, length of wing: 3.5-4.0 mm.
Etymology: This species takes its name from the region in which it occurs.
Remarks: The species somewhat resembles O. palaestinensis by having a whitish mystax, but differs markedly in the structure of tomentum on scutum and sternites.

Oligopogon creticus spec. nov.
(Figs 2, 10, 18, 26, 34)

Material examined: Holotype male: Greece, Crete, Matala, 01.-16. V. 1997, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-035, Coll. COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection. Paratypes: Greece, Crete, Matala, 01.-16. V. 1997, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-026 up to OLI-034, OlI-036 up to OLI-044 [18 males], OLI-045 up to OLI-056 [12 females], Coll. COMH & COGG. Greece, Crete, Ag. Nikolaos, 16.-26. V. 1965, leg. L. Keiser, No. OLI-074, Coll. COMH, 1 female.
Geographic distribution: Greece (Fig. 34).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with brownish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, black bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with greyish tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex. Ocellar tubercle with short and long black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, dorsally black, ventrally whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head yellowish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and black hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.5 to 4.5 to 3.4. Arista two-segmented, with yellowish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and yellowish hairs. Scutum black, with a few short and yellowish and black hairs, with silvery and golden tomentum leaving a bare broad median stripe, divided by a line of yellowish hairs. The stripe is narrower at the anterior margin and ends in the middle of the postscutum in a rounded point (like O. palaestinensis). There are two

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broad, black, lateral areas from the middle of the prescutum to the postalar calli, which are not divided by a tomentose stripe at the suture. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 2, 10). Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles black. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with a silvery tomentose stripe at base, with a few black hairs in the basal half and at hind margin. Wings distinctly brownish. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex, with yellowish and black hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae reddish-brown, apical part of tibiae black, with black and yellowish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, with short black hairs. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles, black lateral marginal bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites black. Triangular spots of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 3-7 small, not reaching the posterior margin (Fig. 18). Sternites with whitish tomentum, atomentose black areas are reduced to triangular lateral spots (Fig. 26) and reduced tomentum on sternite 6. Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 5 mm; length of wing: 4 mm.
Female: Like the male, except the somewhat paler wings. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.
Paratypes: Body length: 5-6 mm, length of wing: 4-4.5 mm.
Etymology: This species takes its name from the region in which it occurs.
Remarks: The species somewhat resembles O. nitidulus, but differs markedly in the black hairs on tergites, the black lateral marginal brisles and the reduced lateral spots of white tomentum on tergites.

Oligopogon graecus spec. nov.
(Figs 3, 11, 19, 27, 35)

Material examined: Holotype male: Greece, Tayjetos, 10 km W Trapezonti, 1000 m, 3702' N 2226' E, 17. VIII. 1979, leg. E. Hüttinger, No. OLI-072, Coll. COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection. Paratypes: Greece, Tayjetos, 10 km W Trapezonti, 1000 m, 3702' N 2226' E, 15. VIII. 1979, leg. E. Hüttinger, No. OLI-073, Coll. COMH, 1 female. Greece, Delfy, 04. VII. 1997, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-071, Coll. COMH, 1 female. Greece, Peleponnes, N Mani, Kardamili, 02. VII. 1994, leg. Chalwatzis, No. OLI-087, Coll. COGG, 1 female.
Geographic distribution: Greece (Fig. 35).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with greyish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, black bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with brownish tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex. Ocellar tubercle with short and long black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head whitish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short black and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.5 to 4.6 to 3.4. Arista two-segmented, with whitish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and whitish hairs. Scutum black, with a few long and yellowish hairs, with two spots of silvery and golden tomentum laterally to the postpronotal lobes, hind corners of these spots sharply right-angled; and two silvery tomentose spots at sides. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 3, 11). Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles black. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with two small spots, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half. Wings slightly brownish at basal half. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex and base, with yellowish and black hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae reddish-brown, apical part of tibiae black, with black and yellowish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.

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Tomentum on thorax
Figs 1-8: Tomentum on thorax in dorsal view (diagram form); - 1: Oligopogon anatolicus spec. nov.; - 2: Oligopogon creticus spec. nov.; - 3: Oligopogon graecus spec. nov.;- 4: Oligopogon hybotinus Loew, 1847; - 5: Oligopogon londti spec. nov.;- 6: Oligopogon nitidus Efflatoun, 1937; - 7: Oligopogon palaestinensis Theodor, 1980;- 8: Oligopogon rufus spec. nov.


Abdomen black, predominantly short black hairs which are longer at sides of tergites 1-2. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish, black on tergites 3-7. Triangular spots of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 3-7 small, not reaching the posterior margin (Fig. 19). Sternites anteriorly with whitish tomentose stripes, which are expanded in the middle of the hind margins, forming an anvil, with straight hind border (Fig. 27). Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 5 mm; length of wing: 4.5 mm.
Female: Like the male. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.
Paratypes: Body length: 5 mm; length of wing: 4.5 mm. The hind femoras are completely black or dorsally reddish in some paratypes.
Etymology: This species takes its name from the region in which it occurs.


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Tomentum on thorax
Figs 9-16: Tomentum on thorax in lateral view (diagram form); - 9: Oligopogon anatolicus spec. nov.; - 10: Oligopogon creticus spec. nov.; - 11: Oligopogon graecus spec. nov.;- 12: Oligopogon hybotinus Loew, 1847; - 13: Oligopogon londti spec. nov.;- 14: Oligopogon nitidus Efflatoun, 1937;- 15: Oligopogon palaestinensis Theodor, 1980;- 16: Oligopogon rufus spec. nov.

Remarks: The species somewhat resembles O. hybotinus, but differs markedly in the shape of tomentum on sternites and the black hairs on tergites.

Oligopogon hybotinus (Loew, 1847)
(Figs 4, 12, 20, 28, 36)

Material examined: Syntype female: Greece, Kleinasien, Rhodus, No. OLI-001, Coll. ZSMC. Syntype female: Greece, Kleinasien, No. OLI-004, Coll. ZMHB. Greece, Kleinasien, No. OLI-002, ex. Coll. Hermann, Coll. ZSMC, 1 male. [no data], No. OLI-003, ex. Coll. Engel, Coll. ZSMC, 1 male. Greece, Rodhos, Archangelos, 02.-14. VI.

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Tomentum on tergites
Figs 17-24: Tomentum on tergites in lateral view (diagram form); - 17: Oligopogon anatolicus spec. nov.; - 18: Oligopogon creticus spec. nov.; - 19: Oligopogon graecus spec. nov.;- 20: Oligopogon hybotinus Loew, 1847; - 21: Oligopogon londti spec. nov.;- 22: Oligopogon nitidus Efflatoun, 1937;- 23: Oligopogon palaestinensis Theodor, 1980;- 24: Oligopogon rufus spec. nov.

1996, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-005 up to OLI-007, Coll. COMH & COGG, 1 male, 2 females. Greece, Attica, Patras, 800-1.000 m, 3806' N 23 20' E, 02. VI. 1979, leg. Aspöck, No. OLI-008, Coll. COMH, 1 male.
Geographic distribution: Greece, Transcaucasia? (Fig. 36).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with greyish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, black bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with brownish tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex, which are greater than in O. palaestinensis. Ocellar tubercle with short and long black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head whitish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short black and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.5 to 4.6 to 3.4. Arista two-segmented, with whitish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and yellowish hairs. Scutum black, with a few long and yellowish hairs, with two spots of silvery and golden tomentum laterally to the postpronotal lobes, hind corners of these spots sharply right-angled; and two silvery tomentose spots at sides and two small stripes in front of the scutellum. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 4, 12). Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles yellowish, except the black notopleurals. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with two small spots, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half. Wings slightly brownish at basal half. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex, with yellowish and black hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae reddish-brown, apical part of tibiae black, with black and yellowish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or


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Tomentum on tergites
Figs 25-32: Tomentum on tergites in lateral view (diagram form); - 25: Oligopogon anatolicus spec. nov.; - 26: Oligopogon creticus spec. nov.; - 27: Oligopogon graecus spec. nov.;- 28: Oligopogon hybotinus Loew, 1847; - 29: Oligopogon londti spec. nov.;- 30: Oligopogon nitidus Efflatoun, 1937;- 31: Oligopogon palaestinensis Theodor, 1980;- 32: Oligopogon rufus spec. nov.

somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, predominantly short yellowish hairs which are longer at sides of tergites 1-2. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish, black on tergites 3-7. Triangular stripes of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 3-7, not reaching the posterior margin (Fig. 20). Sternites anteriorly with whitish tomentose stripes, which are expanded in the middle of the hind margins, but not reaching the centre of each sternite (Fig. 28). Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 5-8 mm; length of wing: 4-6 mm.
Female: Like the male. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.

Oligopogon londti spec. nov.
(Figs 5, 13, 21, 29, 37)

Material examined: Holotype male: Turkey, Bursa, 5 km E Lnögöl, 4006' N 2932' E, 08. VII. 1978, leg. Aspöck, No. OLI-066, COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection. Paratypes: Turkey, Antalya, Termessos, 800-900 m, 3700' N 3029' E, 10. VI. 1984, leg. F. Hüttinger, No. OLI-060, Coll. COGG, 1 male. Turkey, Denizli, Kazikbeli Gec., 1200 m, 3736' N 2918' E, 14. VII. 1978, leg. Aspöck, No. OLI-65, Coll. COMH, 1 male. Turkey, Nemrut - Karadut, 02. VII. 1973, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-058, OLI-070, Coll. COMH, 1 male, 1 female. Turkey, Antalya, S Geris, 250-400 m, 36 47 N 3128' E, leg. Aspöck, No. OLI-068, Coll. COMH, 1 male. Turkey, Nemrut Dagi, Karadut, 02. VII. 1993, leg. K. Denes, No. OLI-057, Coll. COMH, 1 female. Turkey, SW Fethiye, Ölüdeniz, 5-20 m, 3633' N 2904' E, 07. VI. 1984, leg. E. Hüttinger, No. OLI-059, Coll. COGG, 1 female. Turkey, 13 km NW Tarsus, street to Camliyayla, 250 m, 3659' N 3451' E, 10. VI. 1983, leg. E. Hüttinger, No. OLI-061, OLI-062, Coll. COMH, 2 females. Turkey, Burdur, S Celtikci Gecidi, 1250-1300 m, 3733' N 3028' E, 11. VII. 1978, leg. Aspöck, No. OLI-063, Coll. COGG, 1 female. Turkey, Karasun, 29. VI. 1993, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-064, Coll. COMH, 1 female. Greece, Samos, Kallithea, 750-800 m, 14. VII. 1994, leg. A.W. Ebmer, No.

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OLI-067, Coll. COMH, 1 female. Turkey, S Gürün, N Gökpinar, 1650 m, 13. VII. 1990, leg. A.W. Ebmer, No. OLI-069, Coll. COMH, 1 female.
Geographic distribution: Turkey, Greece (Fig. 37).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with brownish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, black bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with brownish tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex, which are greater than in O. palaestinensis. Ocellar tubercle with short and long black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head whitish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short black and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.4 to 4.5 to 3.2. Arista two-segmented, with whitish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and yellowish hairs. Scutum black, with a few long and yellowish hairs, with two spots of silvery and golden tomentum laterally to the postpronotal lobes, hind corners of these spots are somewhat expaned; two silvery tomentose spots at sides of scutum and two small stripes in front of the scutellum. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 5, 13). Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles yellowish, except the black notopleurals. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with two small spots, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half. Wings clear. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex, with yellowish and black hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae reddish-brown, apical part of tibiae black, with black and yellowish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, with predominantly short yellowish hairs which are longer at sides of tergites 1-2. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish, sometime black on tergites 3-7. Triangular stripes of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 3-7, not reaching the posterior margin (Fig. 21). Sternites anteriorly with whitish tomentose stripes, which are distinctly expanded in the middle of the hind margins, reaching the centre of each sternite (Fig. 29). Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 6 mm; length of wing: 4.5 mm.
Female: Like the male. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.
Paratypes: Body length: 6-7 mm, length of wing: 4.5-5.5 mm.
Etymology: This species is named after Dr. Jason G. H. Londt (Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa).
Remarks: The species somewhat resembles O. hybotinus, but differs markedly in the colour of wings (which are brownish in O. hybotinus) and in the shape of tomentum on scutum and sternites.

Oligopogon nitidus Efflatoun, 1937
(Figs 6, 14, 22, 30, 38>)

Material examined: Syria, Bloudan,Dimnahg, 1590 m, 3344' N 3608' E, 26. VI. 1998, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-011 up to OLI-017 [7 males], OLI-018, OLI-019, OLI-020, OLI-021, OLI-022, OLI-023 [6 females], Coll. COMH & COGG. Syria, Jabel Chniss W Sarqhaya, 3348'06'' N 3638'29'' E, 18. VI. 1997, leg. K. Spatenka, No. OLI-024, Coll. COMH, male.
Geographic distribution: Egypt, Syria [first record] (Fig. 38).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with greyish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, black bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with greyish tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex, which are greater than in O. palaestinensis. Ocellar tubercle with short and long black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of

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the head whitish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short black and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.5 to 4.5 to 3.4. Arista two-segmented, with whitish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and yellowish hairs. Scutum black, with a few long and yellowish hairs, with two rounded spots of silvery tomentum laterally to the postpronotal lobes; and two narrow, silvery tomentose stripes at sides and two small spots in front of the scutellum. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 6, 14). Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles yellowish, except the black notopleurals. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, without a silvery tomentose stripe at base, or with two small spots, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half and at hind margin. Wings distinctly brownish. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex, with yellowish and black hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae reddish-brown, apical part of tibiae black, with black and yellowish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, with predominantly short yellowish hairs which are longer at sides of tergites 1-2. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish. Triangular stripes of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 3-7, reaching the posterior margin (Fig. 22). Sternites with whitish tomentum, atomentose black areas are reduced to small lateral spots, especially at the lateral hind corners (Fig. 30) and sternites 2-5 with small atomentose spots in the middle, sternite 6 atomentose at hind margin. Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 5-8 mm; length of wing: 4-6 mm.
Female: Like the male, except the somewhat paler wings. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.

Oligopogon palestinensis Theodor, 1980
(Figs 7, 15, 23, 31, 39)

Material examined: Israel, Atlit, 30. V. 1995, leg. A. Freidberg, No. OLI-009, OLI-010, Coll. COMH & COGG, 2 males.
Geographic distribution: Israel (Fig. 39).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with greyish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, whitish bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with greyish tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex. Ocellar tubercle with short black and long yellowish hairs. Postocular bristles thin, whitish, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head whitish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short black and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.5 to 5.0 to 3.7. Arista two-segmented, with whitish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black. Ante- and postpronotum with greyish-yellow tomentum and yellowish hairs. Scutum black, with a few long and yellowish hairs, with silvery and golden tomentum leaving a bare broad median stripe, divided by a line of yellowish hairs. The stripe is narrower at the anterior margin and ends in the middle of the postscutum in a rounded point. There are two broad, black, lateral areas from the middle of the prescutum to the postalar calli, which are not divided by a tomentose stripe at the suture. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 7, 15). Bristles: 2 strong and short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles yellowish. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, whitish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with a silvery tomentose stripe at base, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half and at hind margin. Wings slightly greyish. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae black, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora black, with reddish apex, with yellowish and black hairs and 1-2 short bristles dorsally near apex. Tibiae reddish-brown, or apical part of tibiae black, with black and yellowish hairs and 1-2 long and white bristles. Tarsomeres reddish-brown or somewhat darker, with predominantly black bristles and hairs, ventrally with yellow hairs.

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Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, with predominantly short yellowish hairs which are longer at sides of tergites 1-2. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles and with lateral spots of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish. Triangular stripes of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 2-7, reaching the posterior margin (Fig. 23). Sternites with whitish tomentum, atomentose black areas are reduced to lateral sides, especially at the lateral hind corners (Fig. 31). Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 6-8 mm; length of wing: 4-6 mm.
Female: Like the male. Acanthophorites with 4-5 thick, black spines.

Oligopogon rufus spec. nov.
(Figs 8, 16, 24, 32, 40)

Material examined: Holotype male: Turkey, Cevlik, 3723' N 3503' E, 20. V. 1995, leg. M. Hradský, No. OLI-025, Coll. COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection.
Geographic distribution: Turkey (Fig. 40).
Description
Male. Head black. Face and frons with brownish tomentum. Mystax sparse, with thin, black bristles in 2-3 rows in lower half of face. Occiput with brownish and silvery tomentum and with two atomentose black spots lateral to the vertex. Ocellar tubercle with short yellow and long black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, brownish to black, in one row. Lower occipital hairs and hairs of the back of the head yellowish. Antenna black, with somewhat brownish tomentum and short and long yellowish hairs. Ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel, arista): 1 to 1.4 to 4.8 to 3.4. Arista two-segmented, with yellowish hairs. Palps black, with white hairs.
Thorax black, except the reddish postalar callus and hind margin of scutellum. Ante- and postpronotum with brownish tomentum and yellowish hairs. Scutum black, with a few yellowish and black hairs, with two small spots of silvery tomentum laterally to the postpronotal lobes, hind corners of these spots are expaned up to the transverse suture; two silvery tomentose spots at sides of scutum and two stripes of tomentum in front of the scutellum. Postpronotal lobe (humeral callus) black (Figs 8, 16). Bristles: 2 short notopleurals, 1 hair-like supra-alar, 2-3 hair-like postalars - all bristles brownish to black. Pleurae with grey tomentum. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) thin, yellowish, in 2-3 rows. Scutellum black, with two narrow spots, with a few yellowish hairs in the basal half and on hind margin. Wings clear. Microtrichia absent. Halteres yellow. Legs: Coxae brownish, silvery tomentose, with whitish hairs. Femora reddish, with predominantly yellowish hairs and black bristles. Tibiae reddish, with predominantly yellowish hairs and black bristles. Tarsomeres reddish, with predominantly yellowish and black bristles and hairs. Claws reddish-brown in basal half, black apically.
Abdomen black, with predominantly short black hairs which. Tergite 1 with 3-4 thin, yellowish bristles and with a lateral spot of white tomentum. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites yellowish. Small triangular spots of white tomentum at the anterior angles of tergites 4-7 (Fig. 24). Sternites 1 atomentose, the following sternites with whitish tomentum at anterior borders with aligned dilations, forming a "T". (Fig. 32). Male genitalia as for the genus.
Body length: 6 mm; length of wing: 4 mm.
Female: Unknown.
Etymology: This species takes its name from the colour of legs and thorax.
Remarks: The species differs markedly in the completely reddish legs and the reddish postalar callus, which is unknown from the other palaearctic species.

 

back to the keys

 

Key to the palaearctic species of Oligopogon Loew, 1847
Two keys are offered for a better determination of single specimens.

1

Legs completely reddish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. rufus spec. nov.

-

Legs black and red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


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Distribution maps
Figs 33-41: Distribution maps; - 33: Oligopogon anatolicus spec. nov.; - 34: Oligopogon creticus spec. nov.; - 35: Oligopogon graecus spec. nov.;- 36: Oligopogon hybotinus Loew, 1847; - 37: Oligopogon londti spec. nov.;- 38: Oligopogon nitidus Efflatoun, 1937;- 39: Oligopogon palaestinensis Theodor, 1980;- 40: Oligopogon rufus spec. nov.;- 41: all records combined.

2

Mystax white . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

-

Mystax dark brown to black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3

Scutum anteriorly with yellowish tomentum around the humeral callus, this spot is connected with the tomentose spot in front of the scutellum by a stripe of pale tomentum (Figs 7, 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. palestinensis Theodor, 1980

-

Scutum anteriorly with silvery tomentum around the humeral callus, this spot is not connected with the tomentose spot in front of the scutellum (Figs 1, 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. anatolicus spec. nov.

4

Sternites with pale tomentose spots, which have straight hind borders (like an anvil) (Fig. 27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. graecus spec. nov.

-

Sternites with another tomentum (Figs 26, 28, 29, 30, 32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

5

Sternites predominatly atomentose (except the first segment), pale tomentum restricted to the front borders of each segment, pointed posteriorly (Figs 28, 29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

-

Sternites predominatly pale tomentose, with some small atomentose spots (Figs 26, 30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


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6

Wing somwhat brownish in basal half. Tomentose stripes on sternites not reaching the centre of each segment (Fig. 28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. hybotinus (Loew, 1847)

-

Wing clear. Tomentose stripes on sternites reaching the centre of each segment (Fig. 29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. londti spec. nov.

7

Lateral spots of white tomentum on tergits clearly visible (Fig. 22). Hair on tergites white and long. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites brownish or yellowish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. nitidus Efflatoun, 1937

-

Lateral spots of white tomentum on tergits very small (Fig. 18). Hair on tergites black and short. Lateral marginal bristles of tergites black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. creticus spec. nov.

1

Wings clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

-

Wings partly or completely brownish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2

Femora completely reddish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. rufus spec. nov.

-

Femora predominantly black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3

Mystax black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. londti spec. nov.

-

Mystax whitish or yellowish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

4

Tomentose spot around humeral callus connected with tomentose spots in front of scutellum (Fig. 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. palestinensis Theodor, 1980

-

Tomentose spot around humeral callus isolated, disk of scutum without tomentum (Fig. 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. anatolicus spec. nov.

5

Wings in basal part brownish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

-

Wings completely brownish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

6

Tergites predominantly with whitish hairs. Lateral marginal bristles on tergites 3-6 yellowish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. hybotinus (Loew, 1847)

-

Tergites predominantly with black hairs. Lateral marginal bristles on tergites 3-6 black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. graecus spec. nov.

7

Tergites predominantly with whitish hairs. Lateral spots on tergites prominent (Fig. 22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. nitidus Efflatoun, 1937

-

Tergites predominantly with black hairs. Lateral spots on tergites small (Fig. 18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. creticus spec. nov.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dr. Jason G. H. Londt (Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa) for helpful discussions and comments on an early draft of this paper.

Literature

  • Artigas, J.N. & Papavero, N. (1988): The American genera of Asilidae (Diptera): Keys for identification with an atlas of female spermatecae and other morphological details. I. Key to the subfamilies and subfamily Leptogastrinae. - Gayana. Zoologia. Universidad de Concepcion, Instituto Central de Biologia 52(1-2): 95-114; Concepcion.
  • Bigot, J.M.F. (1878): Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. Tribu des Asilidi. - Annales de la Societe entomologique de France (5)8: 401-446; Paris.
  • Efflatoun, B.H.C. (1937): A Monograph of Egyptian Diptera Part IV. Family Asilidae (Section II). - Mémoires de la Société (royale) entomologique d'Égypte 4(3): 199-443, 8 pls.; Le Cairo.
  • Engel, E.O. (1930): 24. Asilidae. - In: Lindner, E. (Eds.): Die Fliegen der Paläarktischen Region. Band 4(24): 491 pp.; Stuttgart.
  • Engel, E.O. (1932): New or little known Asilidae from South Africa. II. - Annals of the Transvaal Museum 14: 251-283; Pretoria.
  • Engel, E.O. & Cuthbertson, A. (1937): On the biology of some Rhodesian Diptera together with descriptions of three species of Asilidae new to science - Proceedings & Transactions of the Rhodesia Sciences Association 35(1): 1-15.

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  • Engel, E.O. & Cuthbertson, A. (1939): Systematic and biological notes on some brachycerous Diptera of soutern Rhodesia - Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 2: 181-195; Pretoria.
  • Lehr, P.A. (1988): Family Asilidae. - In: Soós, A. & Papp, L. (Eds): Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera 5: 197-326; Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó & Amsterdam [and others]: Elsevier.
  • Loew, H. (1847): Über die europäischen Raubfliegen (Diptera, Asilica). - Linnaea entomologica 2: 384-568, 585-591; Stettin & Berlin.
  • Loew, H. (1858): Bidrag till kännendomen om Afrikas Diptera. - *Öfvers. Svenska Vet. -Akad. Förhandl. 14(9) (1857): 337-383.
  • Oldroyd, H. (1959): Synopsis des Asilidae (Diptera) de Madagascar. I.Tribus des Saropogonini, Stichopogonini, Xenomyzini et Laphriini. - Memoires de l'Institut scientifique de Madagascar (E)11: 247-289; Tananarive.
  • Oldroyd, H. (1970): Studies on African Asilidae. I. Asilidae of the Congo Basin. - Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology Series 24(1969-1970): 209-334; London.
  • Oldroyd, H. (1974): An introduction to the robber flies (Dipitera, Asilidae) of Southern Africa. - Annals of the Natal Museum 22(1): 1-171; Pietermaritzburg.
  • Scarbrough, A.G. & Marascia, C.G. (1996): Status of the genus Emphysomera Schiner, 1866 (Diptera: Asilidae), with a synopsis of Afrotropical species. - Annals of the Natal Museum 37: 191-213; Pietermaritzburg.
  • Theodor, O. (1980): Fauna Palaestina - Insecta II - Diptera: Asilidae. 446 pp.; Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Science and Humantities.
Author's addresses
Fritz Geller-Grimm
Museum Wiesbaden
Natural History Collections [MWNH]
D-65185 Wiesbaden
Germany
fritz[at]geller-grimm.de
www.geller-grimm.de/asilidae.htm

Milan Hradský
Mlékovice 40
CS-28144 Zásmuky
Czech Republic

The paper was accepted on 10 May 2003.
Editum: 30 November 2003.


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Compiled by: F. Geller-Grimm